Category Archives: Fiber Optic Transmission

Understanding MPO Cable and Polarity

MPO/MTP technology, which is of high density, flexibility and reliability with scalable, upgradeable properties, is one of the contributors that lead the migration to 40/100GbE. However, the network designers face another challenge which is how to assure the proper polarity of these array connections using multi-fiber MPO/MTP components from end-to-end. Maintain the correct polarity across a fiber network ensures that a transmit signal from any type of active equipment will be directed to receive port of a second piece of active equipment – and vice versa. To ensure the MPO cable work with correct polarity, the TIA 568 standard provided three methods, which will be introduced in this article.

MPO Connector

To understand the polarity in 40/100 GbE Transmission, the key of MPO technology—MPO cable connector should be first introduced. MPO connector usually has 12 fibers. 24 fibers, 36 fibers and 72 fibers are also available. Each MTP connector has a key on one of the flat side added by the body. When the key sits on the bottom, this is called key down. When the key sits on top, this is referred to as the key up position. In this orientation, each of the fiber holes in the connector is numbered in sequence from left to right and is referred as fiber position, or P1, P2, etc. A white dot is additionally marked on one side of the connector to denote where the position 1 is. (shown in the following picture) The orientation of this key also determines the MPO cable polarity.

MPO cable connector

Three Cables for Three Polarization Methods

The three methods for proper polarity defined by TIA 568 standard are named as Method A, Method B and Method C. To match these standards, three type of MPO truck cables with different structures named Type A, Type B and Type C are being used for the three different connectivity methods respectively. In this part, the three different cables will be introduced firstly and then the three connectivity methods.

MPO Trunk Cable Type A: Type A cable also known as straight cable, is a straight through cable with a key up MPO connector on one end and a key down MPO connector on the opposite end. This makes the fibers at each end of the cable have the same fiber position. For example, the fiber located at position 1 (P1) of the connector on one side will arrive at P1 at the other connector. The fiber sequence of a 12 fiber MPO Type A cable is showed as the following:

Type A MTP Cable

MPO Trunk Cable Type B: Type B cable (reversed cable) uses key up connector on both ends of the cable. This type of array mating results in an inversion, which means the fiber positions are reversed at each end. The fiber at P1 at one end is mated with fiber at P12 at the opposing end. The following picture shows the fiber sequences of a 12 fiber Type B cable.

Type B cable

MPO Trunk Cable Type C: Type C cable (pairs flipped cable) looks like Type A cable with one key up connector and one key down connector on each side. However, in Type C each adjacent pair of fibers at one end are flipped at the other end. For example, the fiber at position 1 on one end is shifted to position 2 at the other end of the cable. The fiber at position 2 at one end is shifted to position 1 at the opposite end etc. The fiber sequence of Type C cable is demonstrated in the following picture.

Type C Cable

Three Connectivity Methods

Different polarity methods use different types of MTP trunk cables. However, all the methods should use duplex patch cable to achieve the fiber circuit. The TIA standard also defines two types of duplex fiber patch cables terminated with LC or SC connectors to complete an end-to-end fiber duplex connection: A-to-A type patch cable—a cross version and A-to-B type patch cable—a straight-through version.

Duplex patch cable

The following part illustrates how the components in MPO system are used together to maintain the proper polarization connectivity, which are defined by TIA standards.

Method A: the connectivity Method A is shown in the following picture. A type-A trunk cable connects a MPO module on each side of the link. In Method A, two types of patch cords are used to correct the polarity. The patch cable on the left is standard duplex A-to-B type, while on the right a duplex A-to-A type patch cable is employed.

Method A

Method B: in Connectivity Method B, a Type B truck cable is used to connect the two modules on each side of the link. As mentioned, the fiber positions of Type B cable are reversed at each end. Therefore standard A-to-B type duplex patch cables are used on both sided.

Method B

Method C: the pair-reversed trunk cable is used in Method C connectivity to connect the MPO modules one each side of the link. Patch cords at both ends are the standard duplex A-to-B type.

Method C

Conclusion

Network designer using MPO/MTP components to satisfy the increasing requirement for higher transmission speed, during which one of the big problems—polarity, can be solved by selecting the right types of MPO cables, MPO connectors, MPO cassette and patch cables. The three different polarization methods can be applied according to the satisfy requirements in different situations. For more information about polarity in MPO systems and 40/100GbE transmission polarity solutions, please visit Fiberstore tutorial at “Polarity and MPO Technology in 40/100GbE Transmission“.

Related articles: Understanding Polarity in MPO System

                             Introduction to MTP Connector and MPO Connector

G.fast Offers Fiber Speed Ethernet Over Copper

The demand for higher data rates is continuously increasing driven by the applications like Cloud Computing, Big Data and Internet of Things. Meanwhile, the strong market competition makes the network operators to improve the network architecture and deliver high speed services. Pure fiber network should be the best solution. There is no wonder that the fiber network is the trend of the future and it is gradually extended closer to users during the transition from copper-based access networks to pure fiber networks. However, it is not favorable to connect the fiber directly to the customer premises and the cost is high in some cases, like old buildings. To find the fast and cost-effective way to deliver Gigabit speed Ethernet, copper access technology is being applied in some cases. This technology is known as G.fast.

G.fast and FTTdp

G.fast, based on the latest VDSL technology including cross talk cancellation and re-transmission, is designed for use in a ‘last-mile’ of less than 250 meters. Combining the advantages of fiber optic access technology and copper access technology, G.fast can deliver data at fiber speed to the customers using telephone copper wires.

The problem with G.Fast is that its ultra-fast speeds only work over very short distances. To shorten the copper distance, FTTdp is usually applied with G.fast. “dp” here stands for “distribution point”. This solution brings the fiber optic cable out of street cabinets and moves it closer to home via the distribution point. The following network diagram shows the difference of FTTH and FTTdp using G.fast. The blue lines represent fiber optic cable, the red ones represent copper wire.

G.fast and HTTdp

G.fast Shifts the Limits of Copper

It seems that there is no need for copper access in building a FTTx connection. But in practice, connecting the fiber directly to the customer premises causes some disadvantages which can be solved by G.fast.

There might be many difficulties when deploying fibers to the user homes, especially some existing buildings. Sometime it is even not possible to deploy fibers to the user homes. In addition, most in-house telephone installations still rely on copper cables for most existing and newly constructed buildings because fibers are expensive and difficult to handle. There is no need to deploy fiber optic cable in building and home when delivering Gigabit Ethernet with G.fast.

The fiber optic based customers premises equipment (CPE) are usually installed by technician. Compared with fiber optic connections, copper-based CPE installation is simple. Just connecting the CPE to the telephone plug with the delivered cable would finish the installation, which can be installed by customer. Thus, G.fast can save the cost for new users and makes the home installation much easier.

Optical fibers can be broken or have transmission loses when wrapped around curves and optical fibers require more protection around the cable compared to copper. What’s more, the fault location from the CPE is not easy. It would cost more to maintain the fiber connections compared with copper connections achieved by G.fast.

G.fast Paves the Way to FTTH

At first glance, G.fast is limiting the transmission from copper to fiber. Actually, G.fast accelerates the deployment of fiber optic networks. It cost a lot of time and money to process the paperwork and get permission of the subscriber before deploying the fiber optic cable. The processing is complicated. Hardware foundation is the main advantages of G.fast which eliminates the need to rewire the whole building and still allows a noteworthy uplift in access speeds. Copper is everywhere in telecommunication network. The hybrid copper/fiber approach—G.fast making full use of the telephone wires in the buildings actually makes the customers closer to optical fibers in time save and cost save manners. In this way, the transmission from copper to fiber is actually being promoted by G.fast.

Weighing time, broadband speed and cost, operators figure out that applying G.fast in FTTH is an economical and time-saving way to bring Gigabit speed Ethernet to the users. To capture market share of broadband service, some network operators are considering to use G.fast. Alcatel-Lucent and communications services company BT have already started a consumer trial of G.fast technology in Gosforth (situated in North-Eastern England), for offering ultra-broadband access to consumers.

Source: http://www.fs.com/blog/delivering-gigabit-ethernet-with-g-fast.html

What’s the Difference Between Transceiver & Transponder?

In a fiber optic communication network, there are many equipment and facilities to support the normal operation of the system. Fiber optic transponder and fiber optic transceiver are the one of these devices. Literally, both of them are with a prefix “trans”. It seems to imply that there is a similarity between them. Actually, they are not the same. So, what’s the difference between them, something difference on principle or applications? Today, we are going to have a discussion on this topic.

First, in order to better understand the difference between a fiber optic transceiver and a fiber optic transponder, we need to define what each one does.

Fiber Optic Transceiver
Most systems use a “transceiver” which includes both transmission and receiver in a single module. Its purpose, in broad terms, is to transmit and receive data. In fiber optic communication, the commonly used transceiver modules are hot-swappable I/O (input/output) devices which plug into module sockets. The transceiver acts to connect the electrical circuitry of the module with the optical or copper network. Devices such as routers or network interface cards provide one or more transceiver module slot (e.g GBIC, SFP, XFP), into which you can insert a transceiver module which is appropriate for that connection. The optical fiber, or wire, plugs into a connector on the transceiver module. There are multiple types of transceiver module available for use with different types of wire, fiber, different wavelengths within a fiber, and for communication over different distances. The most commonly used fiber optic transceivers include GBIC, SFP, SFP+, XFP, CFP, QSFP etc. They are widely used for different application, eg. 10G, 40G fiber optic transmission.

Fiber Optic Transponder
“Transponder” includes a transmitter and a responder. It is a similar device with transceiver. In optical fiber communications, a transponder is the element that sends and receives the optical signal from a fiber. A transponder is typically characterized by its data rate and the maximum distance the signal can travel. According to its specific applications, it is also known as wavelength-converting transponder, WDM transponder or fiber to fiber media converter. Fiber optic Transponders extend network distance by converting wavelengths (1310 to 1550), amplifying optical power and can support the “Three Rs” to Retime, Regenerate and Reshape the optical signal. In general, there is an O-E-O (optical-electrical-optical) function with this device. Fiber optic transponders and optical multiplexers are usually present in the terminal multiplexer as an important component for WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) system. In addition, in nowadays market, many transponders are designed as protocol and rate-transparent fiber media converters that support SFP, SFP+ and XFP transceivers with data rates up to 11.32 Gpbs, and with seamless integration of different fiber types by converting multi-mode fiber to single-mode fiber, and dual fiber to single-fiber.

2U fiber Optic Transponder

Fiber Optic Transceiver vs Fiber Optic Transponder
A transponder and transceiver are both functionally similar devices that convert a full-duplex electrical signal in a full-duplex optical signal. The difference between the two is that fiber transceivers interface electrically with the host system using a serial interface, whereas transponders use a parallel interface. So transponders are easier to handle lower-rate parallel signals, but are bulkier and consume more power than transceivers. In addition, transceivers are limited to providing an electrical-optical function only (not differentiating between serial or parallel electrical interfaces), whereas transponders convert an optical signal at one wavelength to an optical signal at another wavelength. As such, transponders can be considered as two transceivers placed back-to-back.

Author’s Note
I hope you can start down the path to fully understanding transceivers, transponders, and the difference between them, particularly in a networking, Ethernet, or fiber-optic communications setting after reading this article. Of cause, knowledge is endless, if you still want to get more information about transceiver and transponder, I suggest that you should find more references to read. If you just need to buy the related products, I will recommend Fiberstore to you as usual.

Article Source: http://www.fiber-optic-transceiver-module.com/whats-the-difference-between-transceiver-transponder.html

How to troubleshoot the glitch of the Video Fiber Extender Quickly

If you have a video fiber extender, you may sometimes find it doesn’t work as expected, expecially the first time you connect it. Such questions as not working properly, or optical light is not on etc. In a word, there will be some technical issues need to be consulted after you have connected the video fiber extender or during testing. It is inconvenience to define the problems due to the geographical limitations so that sometimes a simple problem has to spend a lot of time and effort. For the convenience of our customers, Fiberstore summarize some past experiences of solving the problems on video fiber extender and tell you how to troubleshoot the glitch of the Video Fiber Extender Quickly during your installation and testing. Let’s explore together in this paper.

Reception Problem of Electrical Signals
When we meet this problem, we always use the alternative method for fast troubleshooting. Specific methods are as follows:

Firstly, we should confirm that power supply is normal, and then ensure the entire signal whether is connected correctly. After the above two steps, if it is still no a display screen, we could disconnect the fiber optic connector end of the device and remain cables and power unchanged. If the creen displays ”snow”after the fiber being disconnected, it indicate the optical fiber connections is normal before disconnecting the fiber. In general, “snow” may also states that screen works normally. Receiver not receiving a sufficient amount of an optical signal may occurs this issue. Please try to connect the fiber to the receiver again. If the screen is still black, we could confirm that the video fiber extender has no video input signal or is wrong by itself.

On the other hand, we should check the video input on the transmitter. Firstly, disconnect the signal source from the optical transmitter, and connected it to the screen directly with a video cable. If the screen is working, replace the optical transmitter. If in the case of fiber disconnected, the screen remains blank, you need to check whether all connections of the screen are correct. If all connections are no problem, replace the receiver or screen and have a try.

About the “snow”, there are some method to deal with. If there is “snow” in the video images, detect optical power into the receiver with an optical power meter. If the optical power in line with the requirements of the receiver, there may be a problem of the receiver. Replace the receiver and have another try untill you solve the problem. If the problem still exist, replace the transmitter and have a try. If the optical power of the receiver below the calibration value, you could check the transmitter light output with a power meter and fiber optic jumpers. If the output meets the specifications, it may be an optical fiber or optical connector problem. Clean the optical connector and verify that you make the correct choice of optical transmitters based on the type and length of the optical fiber connection. If the light output is still low, you should replace the transmitter.

Control Problem of Video Optic Extender to Camera Connection
Firtly, we should confirm that video fiber extender works normally which indicates that the fiber is available. The bigger the fiber attenuation, the greater the loss of video is than the lost control data of PTZ. Before PTZ control signal transmission, check TD (data activity) LED light on the receiver. Normal situation is that when the data transfer, the indicator light or flash following your operation. If it is not, the problem source will be the receiver. The problem will be obvious when you get a replacement of a same type of receiver.

If you still have any question with your Fiberstore’s video fiber extender and can’t solve it according to this paper, you could contact us by log in our website: www.fs.com or send E-mail to us. Fiberstore is always your good alternative for your video fiber extender demands.

How to build a Fiber Optic CATV/HFC Network

HFC/CATV Network Overview
CATV, which originally called community antenna television is much more often called “cable TV” for people. As the rapid growth of the amount of residential Internet users and the increased bandwidth requirements of multimedia applications have necessitated the development of an access network that can support the need for such services.HFC/CATV networks appear to be within an important position for supporting these types of services.

An HFC/CATV network typically uses coaxial cable for short runs between peripheral equipment and also the transmitter or cable receiver at the user end. At the same time, optical transmission links between headends use singlemode fiber to greatly extend the transmission distance. This combination permits the system designer to maximise costeffectiveness when choosing the system components.

HFC/CATV network develops in an evolutionary manner. A one-way, broadcast analog video service just by replacing the trunk coax cable with fiber is first appeard. Optical transmitters are placed in the headend and the fiber is terminated with optical nodes. The optical nodes are temperature hardened, environmentally sealed containers capable of being placed underground or hung off poles. The optical nodes can transport a slew of modules for example optical receivers to convert the optical signal to an electrical format for distribution within the coax network. The next phase ended up being to upgrade the plant to supply two-way services. The unused 5 to 42 MHz spectrum can be used for upstream communication for example cable modem data. Upgrading to two-way involves having two-way amplifiers and putting optical transmitters within the optical nodes so as to transport the return signals in the customer premises to the headend. At the headend an optical receiver is required for every return fiber in the node. Adding two-way capability to the plant permits the cable operator to provide video, voice and knowledge.

How to build a HFC/CATV Network?
A traditional HFC/CATV distribution system includes 3 layers:
First, supertrunks carry signals over long distances. Distances of 100 km might be achieved rich in signal fidelity, having a single fiber link; Second, feeder links typically span a shorter distance and fasten a fiber hub (supertrunk termination) to a fiber node. Nodes are the reason for a network at which fiber is converted back to RF – this amplified RF is usually fed over coaxial cable to some number of CATV set top boxes. The feeder link inside an HFC system is roughly equal to the sort of link that the business or campus would use to extend CATV coverage over a distance that’s more than is possible with high fidelity over coaxia cable; Third, a drop is usually a link connecting one tuner. If distance is prohibitive of coaxial cable, this link may also be implemented with fiberoptics.

HFC/CATV Networks building cases
Small Private HFC/CATV Networks (Figure 1.)

small pricate catv networksFigure 1. Small Private HFC/CATV Networks

Small to Medium Size Private HFC/CATV Networks (Figure 2.)

small to medium size pricate network

Figure 2. Small to Medium Size Private HFC/CATV Networks

Large Scale Campus and Municipal Networks (Figure 3.)

large scale campus and municipal networksFigure 3. Large Scale Campus and Municipal Networks

Why choose Fiberstore for your HFC/CATV network building solution?
Fiberstore is a professional optical products company. As the HFC/CATV network develops very rapidly, the high demands of HFC optic fiber products is urging the devices providers to improve themselves. Fiberstore has specialized in the development and improvement of HFC optic fiber products for HFC/CATV network, especially the optical transmitters (see the Figure 4.)
TRANSMITTER

Figure 4. Fiberstore optical transmitters

Advantages of Fiberstore Optical Transmitters:
Pre-distortion circuit makes product have excellent non-linear index, ensure optical fiber network and long-distance transmitting, make out users cover.
Microprocessor circuit and VFD, for control and display optical transmitter work status and parameter.
Perfect Laser control and protect circuit, ensure the stable reliable work capability

Fiberstore Optical Transmitters Applications:
1310 broadcast and narrow cast applications
CATV forward path
RF over fiber

There are more products of CATV optical Transmission which will help you make your item works perfectly, know more, click here!