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DWDM vs CWDM the most effective method

Within today’s globe associated with rigorous conversation requirements as well as needs, “fiber optic cabling” has turned into a extremely popular expression. In neuro-scientific telecoms, information middle online connectivity as well as, movie transportation, dietary fiber optic wiring is actually extremely appealing with regard to today’s conversation requirements because of the huge bandwidth accessibility, in addition to dependability, minimum lack of information packets, reduced latency as well as elevated protection. Because the bodily dietary fiber optic wiring is actually costly in order to put into action for every person support, utilizing a Wavelength Department Multiplexing (WDM) with regard to growing the capability from the dietary fiber to transport several customer interfaces is really a extremely recommended. WDM is really a technologies which brings together a number of channels associated with data/storage/video or even tone of voice methods on a single bodily fiber-optic cable television by utilizing a number of wavelengths (frequencies) associated with gentle along with every rate of recurrence transporting another kind of information. By using optical amplifiers and also the improvement from the OTN (DWDM System) coating designed with FEC (Ahead Mistake Corection), the length from the dietary fiber optical conversation may achieve a large number of Kms with no need with regard to regeneration websites.
DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) is a technology allowing high throughput capacity over longer distances commonly ranging between 44-88 channels/wavelengths and transferring data rates from 100Mbps up to 100Gbps per wavelength. Each wavelength can transparently carry wide range of services such as FE/1/10/40/100GBE, OTU2/OTU3/OTU4, 1/2/4/8/10/16GB FC,STM1/4/16/64, OC3/OC12/OC48/OC-192, HD/SD-SDI and CPRI. The channel spacing of the DWDM solution is defined by the ITU.xxx (ask Omri) standard and can range from 25Ghz, 50GHz and 100GHz which is the most widely used today. Figure – 1 shows a DWDM spectral view of 88ch with 50GHz spacing.

Figure -1: Spectral view of 50GHz spacing 88 DWDM channels/wavelengths
DWDM systems can offer as much as ninety six wavelengths (from 50GHz) associated with combined support kinds, and may transportation in order to miles as much as 3000km through implementing amplifiers, because shown within determine two) as well as distribution compensators therefore growing the actual dietary fiber capability with a element associated with x100. Because of its much more exact as well as stable lasers, the actual DWDM technologies is commonly more costly in the sub-10G prices, however is really a appropriate answer and it is ruling with regard to 10G support prices as well as over supplying big capability information transportation as well as online connectivity more than lengthy miles from inexpensive expenses. The actual DWDM answer these days is usually inlayed along with ROADM (Reconfigurable Optical Add Drop Multiplexer) that allows the actual creating associated with versatile remotely handled national infrastructure by which any kind of wavelength could be additional or even fallen from any kind of website. A good example of DWDM gear is actually nicely shown through PL-1000, PL-1000GM, PL-1000GT, PL-1000RO, PL-2000 as well as PL-1000TN through DK Photonics Systems.
Figure-2 Optical amplifier used in DWDM solution to overcome fiber attenuation and increase distance
CWDM (Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing) proves to be the initial entry point for many organizations due to its lower cost. Each CWDM wavelength typically supports up to 2.5Gbps and can be expanded to 10Gbps support. This transfer rate is sufficient to support GbE, Fast Ethernet or 1/2/4/8/10G FC, STM-1/STM-4/STM-16 / OC3/OC12/OC48, as well as other protocols. The CWDM is limited to 16 wavelengths and is typically deployed at networks up to 80Km since optical amplifiers cannot be used due to the large spacing between channels. An example of this equipment is well demonstrated by PL-400, PL-1000E and PL-2000 by DK Photonics Networks.
You will need to remember that the complete selection regarding DK Photonics’ products was created to help equally DWDM and also CWDM engineering through the use of specifications centered pluggable optical web template modules for instance SFP, XFP and also SFP+. The particular engineering employed will be cautiously computed every venture and also in accordance with consumer specifications regarding length, ability, attenuation and also upcoming wants. DK Photonics furthermore gives migration way coming from CWDM to be able to DWDM permitting lower access expense and also upcoming enlargement which can be looked at inside the DWDM above CWDM engineering site.

Understanding Optical Attenuators

Optical attenuators are used to reduce the power level of optical signal, either in free space or in an optical fiber. They are often used in optical communication systems where the optical signal is too strong and needs to be reduced, in which the attenuation, also called transmission loss, helps with the long-distance transmission of digital signals.

Optical attenuators can take a number of different forms and are typically classified as fixed or fiber optic variable attenuator. Fixed attenuators can be broken down into either build out style or incorporated into a patch cord. The build out variety is a small (~ 1.25 inch long) attenuator with a male connector interface on one end and a female interface connector on the opposite end. The build out style is typically fabricated with either air gap attenuation or doped fiber attenuation.

Fiber optic attenuators can be designed to use with various types of fiber optic connectors. Commonly used fiber optic attenuators are the female to male type, which is also called a plug fiber attenuator. Another type inline fiber optic attenuator is designed with a piece of fiber optic cable at any length and connectors are installed as the customers request. Fixed value fiber optic attenuators can reduce the optical light power at a fixed level, for example, a 10dB SC fiber optic attenuator will reduce the optical power 10dB and utilize a SC male to female attenuator. Variable fiber optic attenuators are with adjustable attenuation range. There are also attenuation fiber optic patch cables available, their function is the same as attenuators and are used inline.

Variable Attenuator (or ajustable fiber optic attenuator) is a need to provide different under construction decline. The reduction of precision devices for a wide variety of fiber optic transmission lines to carry out scheduled, the amount of light intensity attenuation. There are also handheld variable fiber optic attenuators which are used as test equipment.

Typical attenuation values are between 3 and 20 dB. It is used in optical systems where the optical power from a source is too high for the test equipment in use. Fixed plug type fiber attenuator provides a connector plug (male) and an adapter socket (female) to connect between fiber patch cord and fiber adapter. Fixed plug type optical attenuator introduces an in-line fixed loss that will reduce the source power to an acceptable detection level. The attenuation level should be stable with temperature and wavelength for a stable reliable system.

An optical attenuator uses a segment of attenuating fiber interposed in the optical path. The attenuating fiber is produced by using a solution doping technique to introduce transition or rare earth elements into the fiber’s core. The dopant reduces the transmission of the fiber. The degree of attenuation depends upon the material used as the dopant, the dopant level, and the length of the attenuation segment. In a specific embodiment, an optical attenuator is provided having a first and second signal carrying optical fibers and an attenuating fiber segment, each of which has a core, a cladding substantially coaxial with the core, and a substantially planar end face. The attenuating fiber segment is fusion spliced between the first and second signal carrying optical fibers. In a second embodiment a portion of the cladding of the attenuating fiber is chemically etched.

Wide range variable & inline fiber optic attenuator and the inline fiber optic attenuator are with more accurate attenuation compared with traditional connector type fiber optic attenuators. Variable optical attenuators from FiberStore are specifically designed for use in DWDM networks with individual channel source elements such as add drop multiplexer.

Application of Optical Add Drop Multiplexer

An optical add drop multiplexer (OADM) is a device used in wavelength-division multiplexing systems for multiplexing and routing different channels of light into or out of a single mode fiber (SMF). This is a type of optical node, which is generally used for the construction of optical telecommunications networks. An OADM may be considered to be a specific type of cross connection cabinet.

A traditional optical add drop multiplexer consists of three stages: an optical demultiplexer, and fiber optic multiplexers, and between them a method of reconfiguring the paths between the optical demultiplexer, the optical multiplexer and a set of ports for adding and dropping signals. The optical demultiplexer separates wavelengths in an input fiber onto ports. The reconfiguration can be achieved by a fiber patch panel or by optical switches which direct the wavelengths to the optical multiplexer or to drop ports. The optical multiplexer multiplexes the wavelength channels that are to continue on from demultiplexer ports with those from the add ports, onto a single output fiber.

Principles of OADM technology

General OADM node can use four port model (Figure 1) to represent, includes three basic functions: Drop required wavelength signal, Add rumored signal to other wavelengths pass through unaffected. OADM specific network process is as follows: WDM signal coming from the line contains mangy wavelength signals into OADM’s “MainInput” side, according to business required, from many wavelength signals to selectively retrieved from the end (Drop) output desired wavelength signal, relative to the end from the Add the wavelength of the input signal to be transmitted. While the other has nothing to do with the local wavelength channels directly through the optical add drop multiplexer, and rumored signals multiplexed together, the line output from the optical add drop multiplexer (Main Output) Output.

Optical Add Drop Multiplexer basic model
Figure 1 OADM basic model

OADM node technical classification

Optical drop multiplexer network technologies can be divided into two types, fixed optical drop multiplexer (Fixed OADM, FOADM) and reconfigurable optical drop multiplexer (Reconfigurable OADM, ROADM).

Fixed Optical Drop Multiplexer (FOADM)

FOADM to filter as the main component, and its function is fixed to join or retrieve certain light wavelengths. General common FOADM can be divided into three types, namely Thin Film Filter type (TFF type), Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG type) and integrated planar Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWG type).

Thin Film Filter (TFF FOADM)

* TFF FOADM using thin film between the filtering effect of the different refractive index.

Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG FOADM)

* FBG FOADM use of fiber Bragg grating filtering effect, with two circulator can become FOADM.

Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWG FOADM)

* AWG FOADM gererally used in semiconductor fabrication processes, the integration of different refractive index material is formed on a flat substrate in a planar waveguide, when different wavelength light source is incident through the couping after the import side, due to take a different path length, while the different phase delay caused by different wavelengths and thus produce certain wavelengths in the export side to form a constructive or destructive interference, making waves in the export side, the different wavelengths will follow the design on a different channel to reach, and thus achieve FOADM function.

Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (ROADM)

ROADM can always be adjusted with the distribution network to add and drop wavelength, which reconstruct the network resource allocation, the flexibility to meet the requires of modern urban network, so a flexible ROADM features, plus optical switch substantial advantage, making the current fastest growing ROADM based fiber optic switch based ROADM (switch based OADM). ROADM mainly be the optical switch, multiplexer and demultiplexer composed, Switch-based OADM, mainly divided into Wavelength independent switch array and wavelength selection switch.

Type 1 Wavelength independent switch array

Type 2 Wavelength selective switch

All kinds of optical drop multiplexer performance comparison

OADM network applications

WDM ROADM optical fiber suitable for different network environments

OADM in the metropolitan network development tendency

1. Arbitrary choice must be retrieved, adding wavelength, the wavelength can take advantage of the limited resources, the node can be retrieved with the need to do to join the adjustment of the signal wavelength, and has a remote control functions. This can provide dynamic reconfiguration of optical communications network capable ROADM will be connected to the backbone network critical devices. And FOADM is used for wavelength demand network access will be smaller parts to reduce costs. Furthermore, ROADM use to all kinds of Tunable Laser, unable Filter, or wavelength selective optical switches and other components.

2. Must be able to convert incompatible wavelength suitable for the backbone network will be transmitted wavelengths. Therefore, optical add drop multiplexer is combined with wavelength conversioin Transponder or other functional components.

3. Must be able to compensate for the node to make acquisistion, adding such action energy loss. Therefore, OADM optical amplifiers must be combined with functional components.

4. Wavelength signals related specifications, such as: the signal to noise ratio (S/N), the energy balance between the signal wavelength, etc., are required to meet network requirements. Therefore must be combined OADM optical variable attenuator (VOA), dispersion compensation module (DCM) and other components.

Related ArticleOADM vs. ROADM