Tag Archives: cable

More bandwidth means more testing

The use of MPO cables for trunking 10-Gbps connections in the data center has steadily risen over the past 10 years. That trunking requires use of a cassette at the end of the MPO cable designed to accommodate legacy equipment connections. Now that 40-Gbps and 100-Gbps connections are coming on the market, a migration path has emerged: Remove the 10-Gbps cassette from the MPO cable and replace it with a bulkhead accommodating a 40-Gbps connection. Then it might be possible to remove that bulkhead and do a direct MPO connection for 100 Gbps at a later date.

The problem is that while this migration strategy is an efficient way to leverage the existing cabling, in comparison to 10-Gbps connections, the 40-Gbps and 100-Gbps standards call for different optical technology (parallel optics) and tighter loss parameters.

In short, each time you migrate you need to verify the links to ensure the performance delivery the organization requires.
To understand the challenges of MPO cable validation, it’s necessary to understand MPO cables and how they’re tested in the field. An MPO connection is about the size of a fingernail and contains 12 optical fibers, each less than the diameter of a human hair – and each one needs to be tested separately. That traditionally means the use of a fan-out cord to isolate each fiber, followed by tedious manual testing, tracing, and error-prone calculations.

The actual fiber test is quick enough: typically under 10 seconds per fiber once you’re in process. But you better be cruising: While one of our enterprise customers has data centers with as little as 24 MPO fiber trunks (x12 fibers each), that same customer also has a 30,000-MPO data center installation. That’s 30,000 connections with 12 fibers each, or roughly 3,120 hours in labor (and $343,200 in cost) if you had to test them all individually.

And at some point, you better have tested them. There were two primary drivers behind development of MPO fiber trunks. The first was the ever-increasing need for cabling density in the data center. Cabling blocks airflow, so the denser the cable, the better the thermal management. And, as data center bandwidth steadily climbs to 10, 40, and 100Gbps, a dense multi-fiber cable becomes the only option.

But the second, perhaps more important factor, is the difficult and highly technical nature of field termination for fiber. We’re talking curing ovens, adhesives, microscopic fibers, etc. Given that expensive and time-consuming “craft” process, modular factory-terminated MPO cables promise simplicity, lower cost, and true plug-and-play fiber connectivity.

The challenge is that pre-terminated fiber is only guaranteed “good” as it exists in the manufacturer’s factory. It must then be transported, stored, and later bent and pulled during installation in the data center. All kinds of performance uncertainties are introduced before fiber cables are deployed. Proper testing of pre-terminated cables after installation is the only way to guarantee performance in a live application. In short, investing in factory-terminated fiber trunks to save time and decrease labor costs doesn’t really offer an advantage if the testing becomes an expensive bottleneck.

Testing and determining fiber polarity is another challenge. The simple purpose of any polarity scheme is to provide a continuous connection from the link’s transmitter to the link’s receiver. For array connectors, TIA-568-C.0 defines three methods to accomplish this: Methods A, B, and C. Deployment mistakes are common because these methods require a combination of patch cords with different polarity types.

You can buy fiber optic jumpers with any connectors from FiberStore.

 

A clear understanding of the difference between fiber pigtail and patch cord

Previously, I only know different in appearance of the fiber pigtail and patch cord.

The fiber optic patch cord = fiber optic connector + fiber optic cable + fiber optic connector

IMG_5915

but the fiber optic pigtail = fiber optic connector + fiber optic cable. I think like this is easy to separate between them.

12fibers SCUPC SM pigtail

Recently, I have readed a discussion about the difference between fiber pigtail and patch core. There are so many professinal people to discuss it. They give me a clear understanding that:

Patch cords are made from either single or multi-fiber cables (usually rated for indoor use) and connected at each end with fiber cable connectors (either single fiber or multiple-fiber connector). Sometimes patch cords are called jumpers, especially if they are simplex or dulex. The connectors are selected to mate with the interfacing equipment or cable connectors. The important idea is that the cable has a connector at each end. The fiber can be either tight or loose buffered and the cable can be made of various diameters (1.2 mm to 3.0 mm are common). The patch cord may have one type of connector (ST FC, SC, LC, etc) on one end and a different connector on the other as long as all the fibers are connectorized on each cable end – this is a transition jumper. Patch cords are commonly used to connect ports on fiber distribution frames (FDFs). The  new mpo connecter make it  possible to run a singel cable that automatically terminates 12 fibers in one easy plug in.  Compared to common patch cord with ST FC, SC, LC connetor, MPO cable is a truly innovative and amazing group of products that really takes fiber optics into the new millennium.

mtpmpo3

A pigtail is a cable (like a pach cord or jumper) with only one end terminated with an optical connector. Patch cords are often cut into shorter lengths to make two pigtails. Pigtails are found anywhere, but more commonly in optical assemblages or optical components

Pigtails are installed where they will be protected and spliced,lets say on the inside of the ODF and that’s why they are normally not sheathed. They have a coating colour so that you slice them on the corresponding colour on the out coming fiber.
On the other hand patch codes are used between the ODF to the WDM MUX or equipment. If you cut a patch code for use as pigtail then in case of future faulting where you are dealing with multiple pairs it will be difficult. But still if you need to cut the patch code check on its characteristics.

In general, the only major physical differnce b/w patch cord & pigtail is that patch cord is a fixed length piece of cable with dual ended fiber connector type may vary & pigtail is one meter standard OFC core with white white colored jacket. As per standard pigtail can only be used for OFC termination purpose & patch cord is to be used to connect the active component with ODF so that means pigtail can not be used at the place of patch cord.

Related Article: 10G SFP+ Optics Modules and Patch Cords Selection Guide

What are MPO and MTP connectors?

MPO MTP cables are offered for various applications for all networking and device needs like 100 Gig modules. They use a high-density multi-fiber connector (MPO connector and MTP connector) system built around precision molded MT ferrule. So what are MPO and MTP connectors?

What is an MT ferrule?
MT stands for Mechanical Transfer. The MT Ferrule is a multi-fiber ferrule in which fiber alignment is dependent on the eccentricity and pitch of the fiber and alignment pin holes. The alignment is dictated by the alignment pins during mating.

The critical elements for fiber alignment are:

1. The ability to hold extreme tolerances for precision during the molding process

2. The shape, tolerances and material composition of the alignment pins

What is a MPO connector?

MPO is the industry acronym for “Multi-fiber Push On.” The MPO-style connectors are most commonly defined by two different documents:

1. IEC-61754-7 is the commonly sited standard for MPO connectors internationally

2. EIA/TIA-604-5, also known as FOCIS 5, is the most common standard sited for in the US

What is a MTP connector?

The MTP connector is a high performance MPO connector with multiple engineered product enhancements to improve optical and mechanical performance when compared to generic MPO connectors. It is in complete compliance with all MPO connector standards including the EIA/TIA-604-5 FOCIS 5 and the IEC-61754-7. It is inter-matable with all generic MPO-style connectors that are compliant to these industry standards. Generic MPO connectors are limited in performance and are not able to offer the high performance levels of the US Conec MTP connector.

Is the MTP connector an MPO connector?

Yes. The MTP connector is a high performance MPO connector engineered for better mechanical and optical performance.

What makes the MTP connector superior to generic MPO connectors?

The MTP connector has features and benefits that are not available on generic MPO connectors. Some of the key distinctions include:

1. The MTP connector housing is removable. This feature allows the customer to:

A. Re-work and re-polish the MT ferrule

B. Change the gender after assembly or even in the field

C. Scan the ferrule interferometrically after assembly

2. The MTP connector offers ferrule float to improve mechanical performance. This allows two mated ferruled to maintain physical contact while under an applied load.

3. The MTP connector uses tightly held tolerance stainless steel guide pin tips with an elliptical shape. The elliptical shaped guide pin tips improves guidance and reduces guide hole wear.

4. The MTP connector has a metal pin clamp with features for centering the push spring. This feature:

A. Eliminates lost pins

B. Centers spring force

C. Eliminates fiber damage from spring

5. The MTP connector spring design maximizes ribbon clearance for twelve fiber and multifiber ribbon applications to prevent fiber damage.

6. The MTP connector is offered with four standard variations of strain relief boots to meet a wide array of applications.

A. Round, Loose Fiber Cable Constructions

B. Oval Jacketed Cable

C. Bare Ribbon Fiber

D. Short boot which reduces the footprint by 45%. Ideal for use in space limited applications.

Fiberstore supply mtp/mpo terminated fiber optic cable. mtp fiber or mpo fiber you can choose.  FiberStore offer singlemode and multimode (OM1, OM2, 10G OM3, 10G OM4)  MPO/MTP Cable. Singlemode MPO/MTP cable is primarily used for applications involving extensive distances, 10G MPO/MTP cable provide 10 gigabit data transfer speeds in high bandwidth applications and they are 5 times faster than standard 50um fiber cable. Work with both VCSEL laser and LED sources. The meanwhile, we also provide 40G/100G MPO/MTP trunk cable.

ADSS (All Dielectric Self Supporting)

ADSS cable is loose tube stranded. Fibers, 250µm, are positioned into a loose tube made of high modulus plastics. The tubes are filled with a water-resistant filling compound. The tubes (and fillers) are stranded around a FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastic) as a non-metallic central strength member into a compact and circular cable core. After the cable core is filled with filling compound, it is covered with thin PE (polyethylene) inner sheath. After stranded layer of aramid yarns are applied over the inner sheath as strength member, the cable is completed with PE or AT (anti-tracking) outer sheath.

ADSS Aerial Cable is designed to be freely suspended between upright supports such as poles, posts and masts. The construction is waterproof in longitudinal direction thanks to the use of jelly-filled bundle conductors and swelling tape. The outer jacket is UV-resistant and at the same time provides protection against environmental influences such as snow, ice, sun isolation and wind. The loose tube design provides stable performance over a wide temperature range and is compatible with any telecommunications-grade optical fibre.  ADSS is available in various span lengths and wind loads.

ADSS cable can be installed using live-line methods on an energized transmission line. Fiber cables are generally supported on the lower cross-arms of the tower, which provides good clearance to the ground. When the fibers are installed in the middle of a tower, the fiber cable is unlikely to hit energized conductors. Lower weights and forces are used for installation, compared with metallic cables, so lighter equipment can be used.
Installation technique is similar to installing overhead conductors, with care taken to prevent excessively tight bending of the cable, and adjustment of the sag of individual spans as for metallic cables.

adss cableCABLE STRUCTURE

Feature / Benefit
•Up to 96 fibers (AD10), Up to 144 fibers (AD20)
•High resistance to tracking effect provides long operating lifetime
•SZ stranding design allows for easy mid-span access and isolates
fibers from installation and environmental rigors
•Drycore design for excellent water blocking performance
and easier handling
•Minimized additional loads due to small diameter and lightweight
with the high strength aramid yarns
•Custom designs available *
•Complies with IEEE P-1222, the recognized standard for ADSS fiber optic cable
* Note: The sheath material (MDPE or TRPE) and the location of the cable on structures that support
110KV or higher circuits should be reviewed prior to installation.

4 parts of fiber optic cables

In this artical you will have a clearly  knowing about fiber optic cale composition

1 Fiber optic cable core:

A fiber optic’s center is made of glass, and this tube carries the cable’s light signals. Depending on the type of fiber optic cable (single mode or multi mode), the core varies in size. Single mode fibers consist of a tiny glass core that typically has a diameter between 8.3 and 10 microns. This type of cable is usually installed for transferring high speed data over long distances. For multi mode fibers, the core is larger. Their core size ranges from 5 to 7 times larger than single mode cores. With a diameter ranging between 50 to 62.5 microns, multi mode fiber optic cables are perfect for high data applications. Multi mode cables are typically used over shorter distances than single mode fiber optic cables.

2 Fiber optic cable cladding layer –Also constructed of glass, this “core cover” is used to keep the light in the core. When transmitting data (especially over long distances), light rays can reflect off each other and travel in different directions. The cladding keeps those signals straight.

3 Fiber optic cable Buffer – Also called the buffer coating, this sleeve protects the core and cladding from foreign material (FM) such as outside light, moisture, dirt and other substances. More often than not, the buffer is made of plastic.

4 Fiber optic cable Jacket – The fiber optic’s cable exterior is typically made of tough, durable polyurethane. Its job is to protect the overall integrity of the fiber optic cable. The jacket is the first line of defense in a fiber optic cable. Routing cables can put stresses on a fiber optic cable (kinks, knots, etc.) and a jacket sometimes contains an extra layer to avoid these potential hazards.

If you’d like to purchase fiber optic cables,  you can inquiry the fiber optic cable price of differeent types  to the customer service team of FiberStore